Michelle Obama at the DNC (courtesy of AP Images)
[This post was updated twice on end March 2015 and 27 July 2016]
Michelle Obama brought the house down at the Democratic National Convention this year. Her wonderful speech affirming Democratic Presidential candidate Hillary Clinton was widely lauded as one of the best speeches made in the ongoing race for the President of the United States, with elections slated for 8 November 2016.
Some have even proclaimed that she was the star of the show that night – and she isn’t even a politician by any measure of the word!
Indeed, a well-made speech can be an extremely powerful tool in politics.
Last year, as we bade farewell to our founding Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew in the last week of March 2015, I couldn’t help but be enraptured by his powerful speeches from the past. Eulogies delivered by his children (including our Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong) and grandchildren were heartfelt, poignant and emotionally touching.
Indeed, one of the toughest skill to master in the world of public relations is the art and science of crafting fabulous speeches. Penning persuasive prose takes lots of blood, sweat and tears. Memorable speeches are forged in the intersection of great content, brilliant delivery, and perfect timing.
Are there tips to writing and delivering good speeches? Definitely.
#1 Know Your Content
First, you need to understand your subject matter. Great speeches come from great content.
Often, the folks in Public Relations or Corp Comms doing the speech writing are not involved in the operational details of the topic. Spend time putting together the facts, figures, and interesting bits of information. Research on your topic and ask as many questions as you need to.
#2 Know Your Context
Understand the context in which your speech will be delievered. What are the hot topics and news items of the day? What are people talking about both online and offline? Is there an “Elephant in the room” which you need to consider?
By taking some time to distill the mood of the day, you are better able to deliver a rousing speech that hits the right emotional and logical buttons.
#3 Know Your Audiences
Next, you need to know your audiences. What is the cultural contexts in which your speech will sit in? Who will the speaker be addressing? What are the concerns and cares of the people listening?
Knowing your audiences is a vital element of successful speeches. Without understanding their histories, cultural norms, and idiosyncrasies, your speeches are likely to fall on deaf ears. Above all, demonstrate empathy with the folks you are speaking to.
#4 Know Your Speaker
You also need to appreciate who your speaker is. For communication professionals in public service, we often have to write speeches for politicians.
Some prefer a more informal and friendly banter approach. Others are more stoic and formal. Then, there are iconoclasts like Lee Kuan Yew, Steve Jobs, and Martin Luther King Jr who make speeches that rowse the emotions and stir the gut.
Read through their previous speeches. See if there is a certain “house style” or trademark which forms part of the speaker’s personal brand.
#5 Know How It Flows
Pay attention to the flow and rhythm of your sentences and paragraphs. A speech with long and languorous sentences are going to make people fall asleep. Similarly, one that is peppered full of short sentences will sound like a machine gun rattling away.
Opt for a nice blend of short and long sentences.
#6 Refuse the Obtuse
Stay away from obtuse and bombastic words. This doesn’t mean that your speech must sound like its written by a 6-year old. Rather, choose words that are impactful yet easily understood by the majority.
Remember that your job is not to sound smart, but to make the audience feel that they are smart!
#7 Write Like How You Speak
Write what you speak and speak what you write. Go through each line mentally. Better yet, say what you write out loud.
Words and phrases which sound good on paper sometimes fall flat when delivered on a podium.
#8 Turn Away Tongue Twisters
You also need to be aware of tongue twisters. Those convoluted combination of words which trip your tongue have no place in a public presentation. Steer clear away from them.
Peter piper didn’t pick this peck of pickled prose!
#9 Start Strong
Start strongly and aim to impress from the word “go”. Speeches which begin with a whole laundry list of Grammy Award style “Thank Yous!” make me snore. Aim to start with significant drama and suspense and shun conventional approaches.
Martin Luther King Jr’s “I Have a Dream” is a great example of a speech which starts really strong. Watch it here and let me know what you think.
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr – One of the greatest orators of all time (courtesy of National Geographic Kids)
#10 End Explosively
Whilst the start of speeches are key, their endings are just as important. In my view, great speeches have a strong call to action which implores listeners to do one or two things when they return.
Don’t let your speeches end with a fizzle. Make your endings sizzle.
#11 Add a Dash of Drama
Good speeches are also full of personality, colour and life. How you angle them depend on the occasion and the audience.
A celebratory function call for something light-hearted and laced with humour. On the other hand, a rallying event needs to be fortified with strong and compelling phrases that motivate, inspire and encourage.
#12 Show Skin in the Game
The best speakers do not just implore you to take action with impactful words and powerful phrases. They also show that they are personally invested in the outcomes of their speeches, and not just a figurehead arrowed to deliver a speech.
The most memorable speeches are intimately connected to the beliefs, values and feelings of the speaker himself or herself. Incorporating that personal twist makes all the difference between connecting with your audiences and leaving them cold.
American First Lady Michelle Obama’s recent speech on 25 July 2016 at the Democratic National Convention is an excellent example of how you can make your speeches personal and relatable. Watch it below to see what I mean.
#13 Revisit and Revise Repeatedly
Don’t be afraid to revisit your speech and rewrite parts of it where necessary. Attempting to come up with a Gettysberg address in one sleepy afternoon is going to be impossible.
Rome isn’t built in a day. Neither is a monumental speech.
Take a walk in the part, have a coffee (or glass of wine if it works better), and come back to your script when you are sufficiently refreshed.
#14 Practice Practice Practice!
Finally, as advised by one of the commenters here, we need to practice our speeches until they are perfect. While there are gifted orators who can just wing it and speak extemporaneously, the majority of us need to season our tongues and lips before the show starts.
Great Speeches in History
Some of the greatest speeches – and speech makers – I have come across include the following distinguished persons. They all have a slightly different style, but every one of them are memorable and impactful:
- Martin Luther King Jr’s I Have A Dream
- Steve Job’s Commencement Address at Stanford University
- Randy Pausch’s Last Lecture at Carnegie Mellon
- Abraham Lincolin’s Gettysburg Address (a little old school, but still charming)
- Barack Obama. I like this one at the Ebeneezer Baptist Church
- Lee Kuan Yew’s rally speech at Fullerton Square as part of the 1984 Elections. You can also find a good collection of Mr Lee’s speeches in Mothership.sg’s article here
Lee Kuan Yew at the election rally at Fullerton Square in 1976 (image courtesy of The Straits Times)
What are your experiences like with speech writing and speech making? Are there other lessons that we should take note of?